doi:10.3849/1802-7199

Articles

Perception of the situation in the Arctic by key actors and the possibily of conflict escalation

Filip CHRÁŠŤANSKÝ*, Zdeněk KŘÍŽ**

This article focuses on the perception of the situation in the Arctic by key actors. The authors reach the conclusion that the situation in the Arctic is characterized by deepening cooperation. Peaceful development is furthermore supported by a complex network of institutionalized relations and the fact that all territorial disputes so far have been resolved peacefully. The most important question about the near future will thus rest in the distribution of competences between the involved institutions and states. This will eventually lead to the convergence of the interests of the Arctic five who wish to maintain their dominant position in the region. If conflicts escalate, they would most likely only result in limited confrontations and not in a grave crisis, much less war.

15.6.2011 14:35:15 | read 16981x | posts: 0 | antonin.novotny | Full article
 

What is Strategy ? The Concept and Model for its Application in the Czech Security Strategy

Jan LUDVÍK*, Luděk MORAVEC**

The article conceptually explains the notion of strategy. Drawing on its understanding by well-established authorities like Carl von Clausewitz, Basil Liddel Hart, André Beaufre, or Colin Gray, the authors discuss strengths and weaknesses of various views. Furthermore, the article employs Arthur Lykke’s definition of strategy to demonstrate various conceptual requirements. Strategy is thus perceived as the relationship among means, ends, and ways. Crucial implications for a development of the Czech strategic documents are further examined. The article argues that, the vital importance of coherent interconnection of all the afore-mentioned parts of the strategy has been so far neglected in this process. It is suggested that particular attention should be paid to the clear formulation of a goal, which is the prerequisite for any meaningful strategy. However, any goals must be developed with the close relation to the available or potentially attainable resources, and purposeful ways how to employ them. The whole process is best described as the hermeneutic circle.

15.6.2011 14:35:10 | read 15715x | posts: 0 | antonin.novotny | Full article
 

Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations

Dagmar ZAKOPALOVÁ

The paper “Effect of regionalization on the allocation of third-party peace operations” aims to discuss and then empirically test on large-N data what is the effect of the joint activity of the United Nations, regional organizations and ad hoc coalitions of states on the allocation of peace operations in the world. It is argued that after the end of the Cold War, all the actors have become much more active in organizing peace operations in intrastate armed conflicts, but it remains rather unclear to what extent they actually share the burden of peace operations at the macro level and especially whether the United Nations focuses on the regions that are rather overlooked by the other actors. The analysis shows that there are remarkable differences among various regions as regards the involvement of international actors and in fact, regional organizations as well as the ad hoc coalitions of states tend to follow similar patterns in allocation of peace operations as the United Nations.

15.6.2011 14:35:06 | read 11246x | posts: 0 | antonin.novotny | Full article
 

Actors of Columbian drug trade: development and transformation

Soňa SMOLÍKOVÁ*, Josef SMOLÍK**

The aim of this article is to portray the main shifts which have been taking place in Colombian drug scene since the 70’s up to the present especially in relation to actors of this business and form of their activity. At first the development of Colombian drug trade till the 80’s when two big cartels centered in Medellín and Cali arose will be briefly outlined. These cartels were able to control a great part of domestic drug trade and due to their enormous power represented serious threat to Colombian state. Thus the cartels declared open warfare with the state in the 80’s. After the cartels’ elimination in the middle of 90’s new actors represented by small drug organizations arose in Colombian drug scene. These small groups were dependent upon cooperation with foreign partners, especially with Mexican cartels. Ever more important role in drug business is played by Colombian left-wing guerilla groups which will be described in the next part of the article. The problem of right-wing paramilitary groups and their participation in Colombian drug trade will be mentioned as well.

15.6.2011 14:35:01 | read 23735x | posts: 0 | antonin.novotny | Full article
 

Bush doctrine in the Middle East

THE US FOREIGN POLICY TOWARDS THE MIDDLE EAST DURING THE GEORG W. BUSH PRESIDENCY

Lukáš HODER*, Petr SUCHÝ**

The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009). The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

15.6.2011 14:34:56 | read 13059x | posts: 0 | antonin.novotny | Full article
 
Created 15.6.2011 14:35:19 | read 10147x | Frank