References, quotations and paraphrase

The formal appearance of bibliographical references and citations of the sources and literature is subject to the standard ISO 690 (Information and documentation – Guidelines for bibliographic references and citations to information resources). Contributions in which the citations do not conform to ISO 690 will be returned to authors for re-editing or rejected. The basic provisions are included in Guidelines for Authors, section Basic Bibliographic Citations. Summary of used sources and literature behind the text is not required and will not be published.

Bibliographic citations of used sources and literature should be provided on a continuous basis as numbered footnotes on the same page, rather than behind the whole text. The upper index number within the text refers to the respective cited source, which is included as a footnote on the same page in the order in which it appears in the text. Each bibliographic citation of the same information source has its unique number. Only one number at a given position should be used; it is possible to include more bibliographic citations in one footnote. If you are referencing the source for the first time and as a whole, indicate its complete bibliographic citation, including the total number of pages. If you are referencing the source for the first time and only a part thereof, the bibliographical citation should include the cited page (p. 18 ) or range of pages (pp. 18-25). If you are referencing the already cited source in the text again, include only the reference to the footnote number where the source is cited for the first time and where the complete bibliographic citation is located; where appropriate, add the information about the specific page or range of pages (e.g., Novák, ref. 22, pp. 25–27).

Please, make difference between paraphrasing and literal quotation both in the text and bibliographic reference. Paraphrase is an interpretation of other's text in your own words (e.g. Karel Novák addresses the issue in his seminal work as … [1]), with a reference in the bibliographic citations.

Literal quotations should always distinguish between “short” and “long” quotations. Short quotations contain maximum 3 lines of text. Long quotations exceed 3 lines of text.

Short quotations should be written in italics and enclosed in quotation marks along with a respective reference. Example: It is the obligation of the author to “properly cite used sources and literature”.. [2]

Long quotations should always be placed in a quotation box (use style “OaS Quotation Box”). The respective reference should be added at the end of the quoted text. An example of a quotation box looks as follows:

 “Quotation box is an appropriate way of visually differentiating a larger block of a quoted text from the regular text. It is written in italics, enclosed by quotation marks and also indented from both left and right. 12-point spacing before and after the quotation box serves for the visual alignment of the entire block of text. The size of letters in the quotation box is the same as the regular text.” [3]  

If you are quoting the same source successively (twice or several times), instead of repeating the full bibliographical data, use the abbreviation Ibid. (from Latin Ibidem – in the same place), see example:

1 DOLEČEK, Martin. Vocational styles (presentation). 2011 Brno: Masaryk University. pp. 6-28
2 Ibid. pp. 10-12
3 Ibid.

Example of references in the text

Although the construction of an anti-missile system in Europe has already received attention on the pages of the Obrana a strategie journal, it can be assumed that its topicality will make the subject part of continuing technical discussions not only in the Czech Republic. [4] Concerns of the Russian Federation about the location of parts of the American shield and adopted countermeasures raised a debate in the past about the sense and the role of the anti ballistic missile defence system. [5] Today's construction of the system at the NATO level can be interpreted as the alliance's security dilemma; this approach adds another point of view and arguments to the debate. [6] a tento přístup přidává do debaty další pohled a argumenty. [7] “However, this shift does not affect Russian position in an essential way.” [8]


If the footnote includes a link to a website the length of which is almost one line of text or more (longer than one line or even occupying several lines), please, use the “URL shorteners”. This online service creates an alternative link with significantly less characters than the original one. We recommend using e.g., with a user friendly interface.

[1] See NOVÁK, ref. 8, s. 41-42

[2] Ethical Standards. Obrana a strategie [online]. 1.5.2012 [cit. 2014–04–14]. Available from:

[3] DOLEČEK, Martin. Vocational styles (presentation). 2011 Brno: Masaryk University. pp. 10-11.

[4] KANTOR, Lukáš. U.S. Missile Defence Site in Europe as an Alliance Security Dilemma. Obrana a strategie [online]. 15.12.2011, č. 2 [cit. 2013-12-12]. Available from:

[5] See e.g. SUCHÝ, Petr. Americká protiraketová obrana a ruský pocit nejistoty. Obrana a strategie [online]. 15.6.2007, č. 1 [cit. 2014-12-12]. Available from:

[6] KANTOR, ref. 2, s. 50–52

[7] Ibid. s. 61

[8] SUCHÝ, ref. 3, s. 31

Created 16.12.2014 23:28:18 | read 17978x | Frank